nicholas i of russia
Fuller notes that historians have frequently concluded that «the reign of Nicholas I was a catastrophic failure in both domestic and foreign policy.» On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its geographical zenith, spanning over 20 million square kilometers (7.7 million square miles), but in desperate need of reform. For example, the government suppressed the Greek-Catholic Churches in Ukraine and Belarus in 1839. He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders. He was suffering from a severe cold, which later turned to pneumonia due to his refusal of treatment. It fought long, costly wars for some small territories that would not be pacified until the reign of Alexander II. On the death of Nicholas I, Alexander II became Tsar. See also Cantonists. However, even Constantine, who was in Warsaw at that time, refused to take over the reins. His elder brothers were Emperor Alexander I of Russia, who succeeded to the throne in 1801, and Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia. This led to a number of officers to rebel. In 1848, when a series of revolutions convulsed Europe, Nicholas was in the forefront of reaction. 18 February] 1855) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. On the death of Nicholas I, Alexander II became Tsar. Nicholas died on 2 March 1855, during the Crimean War. His reign, which lasted for thirty years from 1825 to 1855 was marked numerous crises and a nation changing revolt. This led to the Decembrist Revolt on 26 (14 Old Style) December 1825, an uprising Nicholas was successful in quickly suppressing. The Army became the vehicle of upward social mobility for noble youths from non-Russian areas, such as Poland, the Baltic, Finland and Georgia. Russia fought a successful war against the Ottomans in 1828-29, but it did little to increase its power in Europe. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. He thus carried on a war against Turkey (1828–29). They execrated Peter the Great’s Europeanization of Russia as a fatal deviation from the genuine course of Russian history, and they wanted Russia to come back to the forsaken principles of the Eastern Church and state—to orthodoxy and autocracy. Nicholas was not brought up to become the Emperor of Russia; he had two elder brothers. The cavalry horses, for example, were only trained in parade formations, and did poorly in battle. Though Nicholas made efforts to develop technical education and engineering, he highly controlled the universities and the admission procedure in his country. However, at the end of his reign, many believed that Nicholas's rule had been a disaster for Russia. In 1825, Alexander's sudden death was followed by an uproar. They had outdated equipment and tactics, but the tsar, who dressed like a soldier and surrounded himself with officers, gloried in the victory over Napoleon in 1812 and took enormous pride in its smartness on parade. Foreign policy and the Russo-Japanese War, Revolution of 1905 and the First and Second Dumas, Aleksandr Khristoforovich, Count Benckendorff. In 1849 he intervened on behalf of the Habsburgs and helped suppress an uprising in Hungary, and he also urged Prussia not to accept a liberal constitution. Nicholas learned a lot from her, including the Russian alphabet, his first Russian prayers, and immense hatred for the Poles. He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother’s throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders. His accession to the throne was followed by severe bloodshed and turmoil. Herzen and Bakunin emigrated from Russia on the approach of the Revolutions of 1848. Nicholas I was following the traditional Russian policy of resolving the so-called Eastern Question by seeking to partition the Ottoman Empire and establish a protectorate over the Orthodox population of the Balkans, still largely under Ottoman control in the 1820s. Nicholas especially attended to education; he wished to clear it of everything politically dangerous and confine it to the upper class. By the London Straits Convention of 1841, they affirmed Ottoman control over the straits and forbade any power, including Russia, to send warships through the straits. Imperial House of Romanov. Both were disasters with the former showing the dissatisfaction with the monarchy and the latter causing unbelievable misery to the Russian troops. He caught a chill and refused medical treatment and died of pneumonia, although there were rumors he committed suicide. Some of them believed that the Russian peasant commune, or Mir, offered an attractive alternative to Western capitalism and could make Russia a potential social and moral savior, thus representing a form of Russian messianism. In foreign policy, Nicholas I acted as the protector of ruling legitimism and guardian against revolution. He was born in Gatchina to Emperor Paul I and Empress Maria Feodorovna. Nicholas lavished attention on his very large army; with a population of 60-70 million people, the army included a million men. In 1853, the Tsar provoked a war with the Ottoman’s over the control of the Holy Land. Nicholas completely lacked his brothers' spiritual and intellectual breadth; he saw his role simply as one paternal autocrat ruling his people by whatever means were necessary. The Russian Empire was at its largest but, because of the outcome of the war, it would be greatly reduced. The expulsion of Charles X from France and the November Insurrection (1830–31) in Poland determined the legitimist tendency of Nicholas’s foreign policy. Some members of the military plotted a rebellion against Nicholas, which triggered the Decembrist Revolt on December 26 (14 Old Style), 1825. His offers to suppress revolution on the European continent, accepted in some instances, earned him the label of gendarme of Europe. The Russians lost battles at Alma in September 1854. He was a younger brother of Alexander I of Russia and of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia. On August 26, 1827, a proclamation of military recruitment ("Ustav rekrutskoi povinnosti") was introduced, according to which Jewish boys had to serve the Russian military for 25 years from the age of 18. Nicholas was quite unlike Alexander. Russian Empire (1721–1917) Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! The Marquis de Custine was open to the possibility that, inside, Nicholas was a good person, and only behaved as he did because he believed he had to. Having helped conservative forces repel the specter of revolution, Nicholas I seemed to dominate Europe. At last the Crimean war at the end of his reign demonstrated to the world what no one had previously realized: Russia was militarily weak, technologically backward, and administratively incompetent. The Polish constitution is abolished by Emperor Nicholas I of Russia after suppression of November Uprising. On December 25 (13 Old Style), Nicholas declared his accession to the throne. "If the Emperor, has no more of mercy in his heart than he reveals in his policies, then I pity Russia; if, on the other hand, his true sentiments are really superior to his acts, then I pity the Emperor.". With a rough nature and incurious intellect, he was conscious of his inferiority and sincerely disliked the idea of becoming emperor. Buoyed up by his role in suppressing the revolutions of 1848 and his mistaken belief that he had British diplomatic support, Nicholas moved against the Ottomans, who declared war on Russia on 8 October 1853. At its zenith was the Third Rome theory that postulated that Russia had a unique destiny on the world stage. Nicolas ordered the army out to smash the demonstration. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Soviet Union (1917–1991) His reign, which lasted for thirty years from 1825 to 1855 was marked numerous crises and a nation changing revolt. The union signified an imperial and political arrangement, which proved to be beneficial during the crucial years against Napoleon and during the peace settlement at the ‘Congress of Vienna’ after the Napoleonic Wars. Actually what happened was that the road was laid out by engineers and he endorsed their advice to build in a straight line. Interestingly, this self-proclaimed God's son was a broken and exhausted man toward the end of his life. In 1848, when a series of revolutions convulsed Europe, Nicholas was in the forefront of reaction. Nicholas decided to limit Russian society. With a rough nature and incurious intellect, he was conscious of his inferiority and sincerely disliked the idea of becoming emperor. Nicholas's offers to suppress revolution on the European continent, trying to follow the pattern set by his eldest brother, Tsar Alexander I, earned him the label of gendarme of Europe. Nicholas was not brought up to be the Emperor of Russia as he had two elder brothers who were before him in the line of succession. Nicholas responded to the social unrest in the mid-ninteenth century both at home and abroad by becoming the most reactionary ruler in modern Russian history and among the most reactionary in modern European history. His ascension to the throne and his death in 1855 were framed by two events, the Decembrist Revolt and the Crimean War. The bureaucracy was riddled with graft, corruption, and inefficiency and was unprepared for war. As the third son of Paul I, he was not considered Tsar material. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',162,'0','0'])); The interregnum lasted until Constantine Pavlovich who was in Warsaw at that time confirmed his refusal additionally. A wholesale change of regime was indicated to his son and successor, Alexander II. In 1833, Russia negotiated the Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi with the Ottoman Empire. Еhe Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. Nicholas practiced autocracy, which he considered a paternal right. He is best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's disastrous defeat in the Crimean War of 1853-56. Tsar Nicholas abolished several areas of local autonomy. In Moscow literary salons, they did not discuss the form of the government but dug deep into the very foundations of Russian history and the Russian national mind. In the 1828-29 Russo-Turkish War, Russia invaded northeastern Anatolia and occupied strategic Ottoman holdings, posing as protector and savior of the Greek Orthodox population and thus receiving extensive support from the region’s Greek population. In war, Tsar Nicholas I was successful against Russia’s neighboring southern rivals, Persia and the Ottoman Empire, seizing the last territories in the Caucasus held by Persia. His reactionary policies served to spawn revolutionaries, including liberals, populists and radicals. He completed his training with two educational voyages: an extensive tour of Russia from May to September in 1816 and a tour of England. However, Nicholas expanded Russian territories to present-day Dagestan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. Nicholas's Chancellery head, Alexander Benckendorff, ordered the secret-police department of Imperial Russia, known as the 'Third Section' of the 'Imperial Chancellery,' to create a huge network of spies and informers in association with the 'Special Corps of Gendarmes.' In 'Empire of the Czar: A Journey through Eternal Russia,' authored by French aristocrat Marquis de Custine, Nicholas was depicted as a good person. In return, after the November Uprising broke out, in 1831 the Polish parliament deposed Nicholas as king of Poland in response to his repeated curtailment of its constitutional rights. Through the works of Aleksandr Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Ivan Turgenev and numerous others, Russian literature gained international stature and recognition. The second was the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway, built in 1842–51. Charlotte adopted the name “Alexandra” after she embraced Orthodox Christianity. Born in 1796, Nicholas was the third of Paul I's four sons.
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