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Energy is stored in this easily broken bond and can be passed on when the third phosphate is used to phosphorylate another compound. Generally the first step in the breakdown of amino acids is the removal of the amino group, usually through a reaction known as transamination. C) dehydration. 63) Hydrophilic molecules readily associate with. Does Jerry Seinfeld have Parkinson's disease? This release of phosphate triggers the K+ to be released to the inside of the cell. D) function as biological catalysts. Amino acids whose carbon skeletons are converted to intermediates that can be converted to glucose through gluconeogenesis are known as glucogenic amino acids. To carry out life processes, ATP is continuously broken down into ADP, and like a rechargeable battery, ADP is continuously regenerated into ATP by the reattachment of a third phosphate … 146) Compounds that contain carbon as the primary structural atom are called ________ molecules. (In this reaction, NAD+ is reduced to NADH.) 68) A(n) ________ removes hydrogen ions and a(n) ________ releases hydrogen ions. Want to cite, share, or modify this book? D) the presence of water molecules. A) added; ionization B) added; hydrolysis C) removed; dehydration synthesis. 13) Helium (He) has an atomic number of 2. 104) The monomers of protein are A) glucose. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation are tightly coupled to each other. In animal cells, pyruvate can be further oxidized to acetyl-CoA and then to carbon dioxide (through the citric acid cycle) if oxygen supplies are sufficient. Previous D) Hydrogen bonds are important for holding large molecules together. All rights reserved. 67) Which pH is closest to normal body pH? © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. D) endergonic reaction. nucleotide. D) steroids. D) lacks electrons, thus the He atom is stable. Indicate where each enzymes would cleave the short peptide ala-ser-met-val-phe-gly-cys-lys-asp-leu. 6) Isotopes of an element differ in the number of. The bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be broken through the addition of water, releasing one or two phosphate groups in an exergonic process called hydrolysis. 7. E) prostaglandins. The calculated ∆G for the hydrolysis of one mole of ATP into ADP and Pi is −7.3 kcal/mole (−30.5 kJ/mol). 97) Which of the following is/are needed to form a triglyceride molecule? 52) In dehydration synthesis reactions, compounds. For example, a muscle fiber will metabolize glucose to synthesize ATP. The compound magnesium chloride would contain, A) 2 magnesium and 1 chlorine. 119) A nucleotide consists of A) a five-carbon sugar and phosphate group. E) It has a relatively low heat capacity. C) adenosine monophosphate. D) acids. 12) The atomic number represents the number of A) protons in an atom. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. Molecular Mechanism of ATP Hydrolysis in an ABC Transporter ... is transferred back from the catalytic base to the γ-phosphate, yielding ADP + H 2 PO 4 −. Because this reaction takes place with the use of a water molecule, it is considered a hydrolysis reaction. Why? The type of bond that is formed is an example of a(n). The Science Practices Assessment Ancillary contains additional test questions for this section that will help you prepare for the AP exam. D) chemical bonds the atom may form. B) Hydrogen bonds can occur within a single molecule. If the essential amino acid leucine (2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid) is lacking in the diet, an α-keto acid can substitute for it. D) two or more atoms lose electrons at the same time. a. Figure 6.13 is useful in illustrating the structure of ATP and why it is easy to detach the gamma phosphate that is hanging out at the end of the structure. B) tomato juice, pH = 4 C) lemon juice, pH = 2 D) urine, pH = 6 E) stomach secretions, pH = 1, 77) Of the following choices, the pH of the least acidic solution is. OpenStax is part of Rice University, which is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit charitable corporation. For each molecule of glucose that is broken down, two molecules of pyruvate, two molecules of ATP, and two molecules of NADH are produced. If it takes 2.1 kcal/mol of energy to move one Na+ across the membrane (ΔG = +2.1 kcal/mol of energy), how many sodium ions could be moved by the hydrolysis of one ATP molecule? E) are the body's most readily available source of energy. It is the leading cause of lower limb amputations in the United States. molecules that store and process genetic information are the. How is energy released through the hydrolysis of ATP? the hydrolysis of ATP yields ADP, phosphate ion and. 8. Starch is a storage polysaccride. The flow of H+ back through ATP synthase leads to the synthesis and release of ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ions (Pi) in a process known as oxidative phosphorylation. then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. 53) In the reaction listed below, what coefficient needs to be added to balance the equation? This sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump) drives sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell (Figure 6.14). 113) Which of the following is the symbol for an amino group? ATP is an unstable molecule which hydrolyzes to ADP and inorganic phosphate when it is in equilibrium with water. Cells couple the exergonic reaction of ATP hydrolysis with endergonic reactions, allowing them to proceed. Both bonds that link the phosphates are equally high-energy bonds (phosphoanhydride bonds) that, when broken, release sufficient energy to power a variety of cellular reactions and processes. B) elements that occur in a salt. 10. nitrogenous. C) atoms that function in the body. D) This reaction is easily reversible. If you assume that there is sufficient oxygen to completely oxidize the pyruvate formed from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, what is the maximum amount of ATP formed from the complete oxidation of 1 mol of glycerol? When did organ music become associated with baseball? 128) The average time between synthesis and breakdown is known as the ________ time. 8) The innermost electron shell in an atom holds up to ________ electrons. D) RNA contains pyrimidines but not purines. B) bases. B) between adenine and ribose. E) polyunsaturated. C) an organic terminal. 64) Which of the following statements about water is not correct? The bonds that connect the phosphate have high-energy content, and the energy released from the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + Pi (Adenosine Diphosphate + phosphate) is used to perform cellular work, such as contracting a muscle or pumping a solute across a cell membrane in active transport.

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