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arf gtpase

Amplified BIG5 CDS was a non-annotated splice variant. Therefore, we speculated that the intracellular vacuoles originated from the basal plasma membrane or from trafficking cargo to the basal membrane in the excretory canals. ARFA-TN-YFP partially colocalizes with FM4-64 in a punctate pattern (A-C), whereas ARFA-QL-YFP colocalizes with FM4-64 in aggregates (D-F). (X) TEM image of representative region with gold signal in clustered vesicles; enlarged inset showing gold-labelled vesicle. Read more.. Zyxin is enriched along actin filaments, stress fiber bundles, and at cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion sites. Google Scholar, Ackema KB, Hench J, Böckler S et al (2014) The small GTPase Arf1 modulates mitochondrial morphology and function. e1007795. As for most small GTPases, ARFs (and their GEFs and GAPs) have been associated with human diseases, and many more roles in pathologies continue to be discovered. AP1/CCV, adaptor protein complex 1/clathrin-coated vesicles; MVB, multivesicular body; PM, plasma membrane; RE, recycling endosomes; TGN, trans-Golgi network. As vacuoles in the excretory canals were not detected following RNAi against gbf-1 or agef-1, other ArfGEF(s) may participate in the function of ARF-1.2 in the excretory canals. We know that this last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) was sophisticated, possessing a complement of membrane trafficking machinery that rivals that found in many eukaryotes today. Arabidopsis seedlings (5–6 days old) were ground in liquid nitrogen and suspended in lysis buffer (50mM Tris pH 7.5, 150mM NaCl, 2mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100) supplemented with protease inhibitors (cOmplete EDTA-free, Roche). Part of Arf GAP function is mediated by regulating the ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) family GTP-binding proteins. Alternatively, mutation of another threonine, located in switch 1, trapped ARF6 in a GDP-bound form, a mutation that could in principle also function in related ARF GTPases, many of which share the same structural feature. Endocytosis was also impaired by Est-induced overexpression of ARF1-T31N-YFP. ARF1-T31N-YFP seeds did not germinate on +Est plates whereas germination of ARFA-T31N-YFP and ARFB-T31N-YFP seeds was unaffected (Fig 2B–2D, compare with 2E, 2F, 2G–2H). Thus, by whatever criteria used, ARFB protein appears to be of no vital importance. The human genome encodes at least 28 proteins containing an ARF GAP domain or having GAP activity (Gillingham and Munro, 2007; Kahn et al., 2008; Donaldson and Jackson, 2011) (Table 3; additional information included in Supplemental Table III). Single and double knockouts of the two ARFA genes by T-DNA insertion did not cause any major abnormality (S2Y and S2Z Fig). 47kDa. L2 hermaphrodites (F1) were photographed. No, Is the Subject Area "Guanosine triphosphatase" applicable to this article? Immunoprecipitation (IP) of GNL2 using GFP-Trap-agarose beads (IP: α-GFP) from transgenic plants expressing GNL2-GFP under the control of the GNOM promoter (GN::GNL2-GFP), was followed by immunoblot (IB) analysis using α-ARF1 antibody. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007795.s006. Magnified images revealed that the luminal structure remains and vacuoles exist intracellularly (Fig. (K) Aberrant Golgi stacks (arrowheads) and TGN structures (t) in two adjacent cells. It is unlikely that any single protein is responsible for linking the catenin-cadherin complex with the actin cytoskeleton. A conserved domain containing a zinc finger motif mediates catalysis. In contrast, ARF-Q71L is thought to slow down GTP hydrolysis, keeping the ARF GTPase in an active, GTP-bound form.

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