Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. (Lithium also reacts with nitrogen.) Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! The alkali metals react readily with atmospheric oxygen and water vapour. They react readily with nonmetals, particularly halogens. Potassium salts, however, are consumed in considerable tonnages in the manufacture of fertilizers. An alkali metal can easily lose its valence electron to form the univalent cation. Francium was not discovered until 1939 by Marguerite Perey of the Radium Institute in Paris. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Alkalimetall er grunnstoffene som ligger i gruppe 1 i periodesystemet; litium, natrium, kalium, rubidium, cesium og francium.. Alkalimetallene har kun ett elektron i det ytterste elektronskallet, er svært reaktive og reagerer blant annet kraftig med vann.Reaksjonen mellom alkalimetall og vann gir en basisk vannløsning, derav navnet alkali-. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Tettheten og ioneradien øker nedover i gruppen. Lithium was discovered by the Swedish chemist Johan August Arfwedson in 1817 while analyzing the mineral petalite. In the 19th century the only use for the alkali metals was the employment of sodium as a reagent in the manufacture of aluminum. Sodium is by far the most important alkali metal in terms of industrial use. 09:47. The same researchers, on extracting the alkalies from the mineral lepidolite, separated another solution, which yielded two spectral lines of red colour. Alkali metals have low electronegativities. In October 1807 the English chemist Sir Humphry Davy isolated potassium and then sodium. The realization that these earths were not elements but compounds is attributed to the chemist Antoine Lavoisier. This process, in which a molten sodium chloride–calcium chloride mixture (to reduce the melting point) is electrolyzed, produces both sodium metal and chlorine. More complex, water-insoluble minerals are, however, far more abundant in Earth’s crust. Updates? Det eneste unntaket er kalium, hvor tettheten er unormalt liten. Lithium metal is used in certain light-metal alloys and as a reactant in organic syntheses. Alkali metals have one electron in their outer shell, which is loosely bound. Denne siden ble sist redigert 13. mai 2020 kl. The alkali metals are so called because reaction with water forms alkalies (i.e., strong bases capable of neutralizing acids). In his Traité Élémentaire de Chimie Smaller amounts of lithium and potassium are also present. They suggested the presence of a new alkali element and called it cesium, derived from the Latin caesius, used to designate the blue of the sky. The alkaline earth metals are named after their oxides, the alkaline earths, whose old-fashioned names were beryllia, magnesia, lime, strontia, and baryta. They are low enough for the first three (lithium, sodium and potassium) to float on water. De kan lett skjæres med kniv. The alkali metals are the elements located in Group IA of the periodic table. The alkali metals also have low densities. Alkali metal, any of the six elements of Group 1 (Ia) of the periodic table—lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Analytical chemistry of the alkali metals, https://www.britannica.com/science/alkali-metal, British Broadcasting Corporation - Alkali Metal, alkali metal - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Potassium has considerably less use than sodium as a free metal. This gives them the largest atomic radii of the elements in their respective periods. The alkali metals have low melting points, ranging from a high of 179 °C (354 °F) for lithium to a low of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F) for cesium. The alkali metals themselves react with many organic compounds, particularly those containing a halogen or a readily replaceable hydrogen atom. The alkali metals are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Rechargeable lithium storage batteries that could be suitable for vehicle propulsion or energy storage are the subject of intensive research. Lithium is the lightest metallic element. Most common nonmetallic substances such as halogens, halogen acids, sulfur, and phosphorus react with the alkali metals. Their low ionization energies result in their metallic properties and high reactivities. This gives them the largest atomic radii of the elements in their respective periods. "Earth" was a term applied by early chemists to nonmetallic substances that are insoluble in water and resistant to heating—properties shared by these oxides. They proposed the name rubidium for the element in this solution from the Latin rubidus, which was used for the darkest red colour. Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. Modern version of the periodic table of the elements. Hundreds of thousands of tons of commercial compounds that contain sodium are used annually, including common salt (NaCl), baking soda (NaHCO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), and caustic soda (NaOH). Smeltepunktet avtar fra det letteste, litium til til det tyngste stabile, cesium, som smelter bare litt over romtemperatur.
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